6.2.1. Gordon Monument, Van Brunt & Howe, 1883, Savannah, GA. Overview of monument after conservation treatment.
6.2.2. National Iwo Jima Memorial, 1995, New Britain, CT. Monument overview after stone conservation.
6.2.3. Elks Rest Memorial, Eugene Moraham, 1914, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, NY. Overview monument for conservation assessment.
6.2.4. Moffit & Doyle, 1887, Soldiers & Sailors Monument, New Haven, CT. Overview of monument from southwest corner.
6.2.5. Confederate Monument, 1884, Little Rock National Cemetery-Front overview of marble memorializing 640 Confederate dead buried at the site.
18.104.22.168 Confederate Monument, 1884, Little Rock National Cemetery. Front detail of marble memorializing 640 Confederate dead buried at the site.
6.2.6. Soldiers Monument, Charles Conrads, 1868, Granby, CT. Overview of CT Valley sandstone monument after treatment.
6.2.7 Red Jacket Hamilton, 1890, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, NY. Monument after sculpture stabilization.
6.2.9 Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Randolph Rogers, 1871, Kennedy Plaza, Providence, RI. Back overview of the monument.
6.2.10. Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Melzar Mosman, 1876, Bridgeport, CT. Overview of monument and cast replacements after treatment.
6.2.11. World War Monument, Magongle, Harold Van Buren, 1928, New Britain, CT. Salt samples and analysis on 90' limestone monument.
6.2.12 Civil War Memorial, Launt Thompson, 1872, Pittsfield, MA.
6.2.13 Civil War Memorial, Launt Thompson, 1872, Pittsfield, MA. Rededication Ceremony.
6.2.15 Senator Hoar Monument, Daniel Chester French, 1908, Worcester, MA. Overview of the sculpture after conservation treatment.
6.2.16 Lincoln Herm, Paul Morris, 1912, New Milford, CT. Overview of the monument after conservation treatment.
6.2.16 Major Burnside Monument, Launt Thompson, 1887, Burnside Park, Providence, RI. Front overview of monument.
6.2.17 Milk Row Civil War Monument, 1863, Somerville, MA. One of the first Civil War monuments in America errected during the war.
6.2.18 Broadway Civil War Monument, Smith Granite Company, 1905, New Haven, CT. Overview of the monument.
6.2.19 Christopher Columbus, 1892, Wooster Square, New Haven, CT.
6.2.20 Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, 1911, Clinton, CT.
6.2.21 Soldiers' Monument, Deerfield, MA. Monument - front overview.
6.2.22 WWI Memorial, Evelyn Beatrice Longman, 1921, Naugatuck, CT.
6.2.23 Industry, Evelyn Beatrice Longman, 1931, A. I. Prince Vocational School, Hartford, CT. View of set monument in new location.
6.2.24 Spirit of Victory, WWI Monument, Evelyn Beatrice Longman, 1926, Hartford, CT.
6.2.24 Welles Monument, Charles Conrads, 1873, Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford, CT. Front overview of the monument after treatment.
6.2.25 Horace Wells Monument, T.H. Bartlett, 1874, Bushnell Park, Hartford, CT.
6.2.26 Horace Wells Monument, Louis Potter, 1909, Cedar Hill Cemetery, CT. Overview of monument after treatment.
6.2.27 Colt Monument, Randolph Rogers, 1894, Cedar Hill Cemetery. Overview of bronze and stone.
6.2.28 Minnesota Monument, John Daniels, 1916, Little Rock National Cemetery, AK. Proper right overview of monument after conservation treatment.
6.2.29. Volunteer Firemen Monument, 1091, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, NY. Monument and 87 markers for fallen firefighters.
6.2.30 Minute Man Monument, Daniel. A. Webster, 1910, Westport, CT.
6.2.31 Connecticut Twenty-Ninth Colored Regiment C.V. Infantry, Ed Hamilton, 2008, New Haven, CT.
6.2.32 Doughboy, Plaque, J. Clinton Shepard, 1908, Westport, CT. Overview of conserved monument.
6.2.34 Pulaski Monument, Granville Carter, 1976, Hartford, CT. Overview of the monument after conservation treatment.
6.2.35 Defendants of New Haven, 1911, New Haven, CT. Overview of restored iron fence and bronze sculpture.
6.2.36 Abraham Pierson, Launt Thompson, 1874, Clinton, CT.
6.2.37 Charles Morgan, Launt Thompson, 1874, Clinton, CT.
6.2.38 Soldiers Monument, Melzar Mosman, 1874, Middletown, CT. Overview of monument after treatment and cyclic maintenance.
6.2.39 WWI Monument Middletown, CT. Overview of granite obelisk and bronze plaque.
6.2.40. Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Moffit and Doyle, 1896, New London, CT. Overview of the 50' monument.
From the 36” tall marble obelisk, the Confederate Monument, marking the mass burial of 640 Confederate soldiers in Little Rock National Cemetery, Arkansas, to the 55’ tall limestone and polished granite edifice, the Gordon Monument dedicated to a single politician and railroad industrialist in Savannah, Georgia, monuments poignantly embody our nation’s history. These two monuments exemplify how tremendously monuments can physically vary, from a simple marker to a grand architectural structure.
The development of the monument parallels the development of the historic outdoor sculpture. Colonial American monuments began primarily in local burying grounds. More elaborate cemetery monuments and community public monuments proliferated from The Rural Cemetery Movement, beginning with Mount Auburn in 1831 and the conclusion of the Civil War with the erection of numerous monuments on local town greens and in city centers. The development of urban parks, such as Central Park in 1857, and the City Beautiful Movement that began at the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893 promoted monuments to recognized leaders in the arts and sciences, as well as distinguished military veterans. War monuments continued after subsequent military events including the Spanish American War, WWI, WWII, Korean War, Vietnam War and the Iraq wars. The tragedy of 9/11 has also lead to national memorials honoring the bravery of police, fireman and heroic civilians.
Stone typically constitutes the primary material of a historic monument, with the traditional addition of bronze sculpture, plaques and ornimentation. Zinc, or “white bronze”, monuments were also common from the 1870’s through the 1910’s. Successful conservation requires appropriate research, materials analysis, planning, material selection, treatment implementation and ongoing maintenance, for all sculptural and architectural features. Given the varieties of materials, range of conditions and structural issues, and differing display settings, preservation efforts continually evolve to mitigate the problems at hand while emphasizing long term stability and future re-treatability.
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