6.1.0 Bendel Lion - Sleeping Lion, 1875, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.1 Ruth, Giovanni Batista Lombardi, 1862, Rome, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT. Overview after conservation.
6.1.2 Gordon Monument, Van Brunt & Howe, 1883, Savannah, GA. Limestone ornamentation and putti.
6.1.3 Gordon Monument, Van Brunt & Howe, 1883, Savannah, GA. Limestone ornamentation and putti.
6.1.4 Welles Monument, Charles Conrads, 1873, Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford, CT.
6.1.5 Neighbors, Kreis, -WPA-1937, Stamford, CT. Tennessee Limestone after treatment.
6.1.6 Marston Muses, Marston Hall, 1900, Iowa State University, Ames. Overview of Indiana Limestone sculptures.
6.1.6 Marston Muses, Mining, Marston Hall, 1900, Iowa State University, Ames. Overview of Indiana Limestone sculpture.
6.1.7 Spring, Fountain of the Four Seasons, Christian Petersen, 1941, University Museums, Iowa State University, Ames. View after treatment.
6.1.8 Red Jacket Hamilton, 1890, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, NY.
6.1.9 Spirit of Victory, Evelyn Beatrice Longman, 1926, Hartford, CT.
6.1.11 Senator Hoar Monument, Daniel Chester French, 1908, Worcester, MA. Overview of the sculpture after conservation treatment.
6.1.10 Soldiers Monument, Charles Conrads, 1868, Granby, CT. CT Valley sandstone.
6.1.12 Abraham Pierson, Launt Thompson, 1874, Clinton, CT.
6.1.13 Charles Morgan, Launt Thompson, 1874, Clinton, CT.
6.1.14 Minute Man, Daniel. A. Webster, 1910, Westport, CT. Overview of historic bronze cast by Tiffany and Co.
6.1.15 Minnesota Monument, 1916, Little Rock National Cemetery. View of bronze soldier dedicated to 162 Minnesota Union soldiers
6.1.17 Angel of Peace, Moffit & Doyle, 1887, Soldiers & Sailors Monument, New Haven, CT.
6.1.18 History, Moffit & Doyle, 1887, Soldiers & Sailors Monument, New Haven, CT. Overview of bronze sculptures on west corner.
6.1.19 History, Moffit & Doyle, 1887, Soldiers & Sailors Monument, New Haven, CT.
6.1.20 Columbia, 19th Century Zinc, Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University.
6.1.21 Bendel Horses, 1850, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.22 Four Seasons, Winter, 19th century copy of Taddeo Landini, ca. 1608, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.23 Four Seasons, Spring, attributed to Pietro Francavilla ca. 1608, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.24 Four Seasons, Summer, Pietro Francavilla ca. 1608, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.25 Four Seasons, Fall, 19th century copy of Giovanni-Battisti Caccini, ca.1608, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.26 Bendel Lion - Alert, 1875, Stamford Museum and Nature Center, CT.
6.1.27 Elks Rest Memorial, Eugene Moraham, 1914, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, NY.
6.1.28 Major Burnside Monument Launt Thompson, 1887, Burnside Park, Providence, RI. Front overview of equestrian sculpture.
6.1.29 Polaski, Carter, 1976, Hartford, CT. Detail of bronze equestrian sculpture.
6.1.30 General Israel Putnam, Anna Hyatt Huntington, 1967, Putnam State Park, CT. Front overview of bronze equestrian sculpture.
6.1.31 Lincoln Herm, Paul Morris, 1912, New Milford, CT.
6.1.32 Civil War Memorial, Launt Thompson, 1872, Pittsfield, MA.
6.1.33 Soldiers Monument, Melzar Mosman, 1874 Middletown, CT.
6.1.34 Soldiers Monument, Conrads, Manchester, CT. Front overview after treatment.
For thousands of years artists created three dimensional objects that depicted the human body, representations of animals and other cultural or spiritual forms. Norms of stylization and realistic representation varied over time and place. In North America indigenous American Indians created artworks in a variety of materials including ceramics, clay, wood and stone. Colonial American sculpture originated as a folk art in gravestones, furniture, architectural detail, and ship figureheads. (See Relief Sculpture for cemetery carvings). As the colonial nation culturally and financially developed, artists traveled to Europe to study in major artistic centers such as Florence, Rome and Paris. Subsequent sculpture followed European figurative styles lead by the established salons and academies. Sculptors typically made art in plaster, wood, stone and metal, with an emphasis on marble and bronze.
In the 19th century, outdoor sculpture proliferated with the Rural Cemetery Movement, beginning with Mount Auburn in 1831, the conclusion of the Civil War and Spanish American War, the development of urban parks, such as Central Park in 1857, and in a grand scale with the City Beautiful Movement that began at the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893. Public sculpture continued to flourish in the beginning of the 20th century, following the World War and again during the Works Progress Administration of the Great Depression. Industrialization made the quarying, carving and trasportation of a variety of stone types possible. While marble was considered a traditional stone material, a variety of granites, Tennessee limestones, and Indiana limestones were popularized. Likewise, bronze continued to be used as the preeminent sculptural metal but cast zinc, aluminum, sheet copper and cast iron were also used
Successful conservation of historic sculpture requires appropriate research, materials analysis, planning, material selection, treatment implementation and ongoing maintenance. Given the varieties of materials, range of conditions and display settings, preservation efforts continually refocus to mitigate the problems at hand while emphasizing long term stability and future re-treatability of the object undergoing care.
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